Category: golden age

Joris van Bredael – Jan III Sobieski in Vienna – 

The Battle of Vienna (German: Schlacht am Kahlen Berge or Kahlenberg (Battle of the Bald Mountain); Polish: bitwa pod Wiedniem or odsiecz wiedeńska (The Relief of Vienna); Modern Turkish: İkinci Viyana Kuşatması, Ottoman Turkish: Beç Ḳalʿası Muḥāṣarası) took place at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna on 12 September 1683 after the imperial city had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months. The battle was fought by the Habsburg Monarchy, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Holy Roman Empire, under the command of King John III Sobieski against the Ottomans and their vassal and tributary states. The battle marked the first time the Commonwealth and the Holy Roman Empire had cooperated militarily against the Ottomans, and it is often seen as a turning point in history, after which “the Ottoman Turks ceased to be a menace to the Christian world”. In the ensuing war that lasted until 1699, the Ottomans lost almost all of Hungary to the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.

The battle was won by the combined forces of the Holy Roman Empire and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the latter represented only by the forces of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (the march of the Lithuanian army was delayed, and they reached Vienna after it had been relieved). The Viennese garrison was led by Ernst Rüdiger Graf von Starhemberg, an Austrian subject of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. The overall command was held by the senior leader, the King of Poland, John III Sobieski, who led the relief forces.

The opposing military forces were those of the Ottoman Empire and Ottoman fiefdoms, commanded by Grand Vizier Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha. The Ottoman army numbered approximately 90,000 to 200,000 men (according to documents on the order of battle found in Kara Mustafa’s tent, initial strength at the start of the campaign was 170,000 men). They began the siege on 14 July 1683. Ottoman forces consisted, among other units, of 60 ortas or Janissaries (12,000 men paper-strength) with an observation army of some 70,000 men watching the countryside. The decisive battle took place on 12 September, after the arrival of the united relief army.

Historians suggest the battle marked the turning point in the Ottoman–Habsburg wars, a 300-year struggle between the Holy Roman and Ottoman Empires. During the 16 years following the battle, the Austrian Habsburgs gradually recovered and dominated southern Hungary and Transylvania, which had been largely cleared of Ottoman forces. The battle is noted for including the largest known cavalry charge in history.

Joris van Bredael (1 January 1661 – c. 1706) was a Flemish painter known for his battle scenes and cityscapes representing some popular celebration or feast. He was a member of the prominent artistic family van Bredael.

He was born in Antwerp into an artist family as the second son of Peeter van Bredael, a well-known painter specializing in market scenes and village feasts set in Italianate landscapes. His mother was An Veldener, the daughter of the sculptor Jennyn Veldener. Two of his brothers, Jan Peeter the Elder and Alexander van Bredael became painters. Joris likely trained under his father. He became a member of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1684.

He married Johanna Maria van Diepenbeeck, the daughter of the prominent Baroque painter Abraham van Diepenbeeck, on 25 July 1681. Their two children Jozef and Jan Pieter both became painters. Joris’ first wife died c. 1689-90. He married a second time to Anne van der Dort.

He worked in Antwerp for the art dealers such as Forchondt. In 1690 Forchondt sent to the representatives of the family business in Vienna six battle scenes by Joris van Bredael including a Relief of Vienna, a Capture of Buda, a Capture of Belgrade and a Capture of Gran.

On the basis of a painting of a winter view of Vienna, which is attributed to him, it is sometimes assumed he spent time in Vienna.

He was the teacher of Joannes Ludovicus Daudenfort and of his two sons.

Very few paintings of Joris Bredael have been preserved. He is mainly known for his battle scenes and city views typically representing some popular celebration or feast. An example of a city view is A sledge carousel in the courtyard of the Hofburg, Vienna, in the reign of Leopold I (Sold by Christie’s on 24 April 1998 in London, lot 73). It represents a sledge-ride at night in the squares and streets of Vienna, a favourite pastime of the Viennese during the winter months.

A battle piece attributed to him is the Battle between Christian and Osman Soldiers (Sold by Lempertz on 28 September 2011 in Cologne, lot 8). His family members, including his sons, often made similar battle pieces, which seem to have responded to a demand by the European nobility for depictions of their victories over the Turks.[

Joris van Bredael – Battle between Christian and Osman Soldiers. – 

Joris van Bredael (1 January 1661 – c. 1706) was a Flemish painter known for his battle scenes and cityscapes representing some popular celebration or feast. He was a member of the prominent artistic family van Bredael.

Joris van Bredael – A sledge carousel in the courtyard of the Hofburg, Vienna, in the reign of Leopold I – 

The Hofburg is the former principal imperial palace of the Habsburg dynasty rulers and today serves as the official residence and workplace of the President of Austria. It is located in the center of Vienna and was built in the 13th century and expanded several times afterwards. It also served as the imperial winter residence, as Schönbrunn Palace was the summer residence.

Since 1279 the Hofburg area has been the documented seat of government. The Hofburg has been expanded over the centuries to include various residences (with the Amalienburg and the Albertina), the imperial chapel (Hofkapelle or Burgkapelle), the imperial library (Hofbibliothek), the treasury (Schatzkammer), the Burgtheater, the Spanish Riding School (Hofreitschule), the imperial mews (Stallburg and Hofstallungen).

The palace faces the Heldenplatz (Heroes Square) ordered under the reign of Emperor Franz Joseph I, as part of what was planned to become the Kaiserforum  but which was never completed.

Numerous architects have executed work at the Hofburg as it expanded, notably the Italian architect-engineer Filiberto Luchese, Lodovico Burnacini and Martino and Domenico Carlone, the Baroque architects Lukas von Hildebrandt and Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach, Johann Fischer von Erlach, and the architects of the Neue Burg built between 1881 and 1913.

Joris van Bredael (1 January 1661 – c. 1706) was a Flemish painter known for his battle scenes and cityscapes representing some popular celebration or feast. He was a member of the prominent artistic family van Bredael.

Jan Peeter van Bredael the Elder – Vast river landscape with rural staffage – 

Jan Peeter van Bredael the Elder or Jan Pieter van Bredael the Elder (Antwerp, 23 April 1654 – Antwerp, 10 March 1745) was a Flemish painter, art restorer and art dealer. He is known for his still lifes of flowers and fruits, game and Italianate landscapes. He was a member of the prominent artistic family van Bredael from Antwerp.

Jan Peeter van Bredael was a still life painter of flowers, fruit and game and also painted Italianate landscapes with figures. He signed with the initials JP intertwined. This monogram was often read as just ‘P’. As a result, many of his works have been wrongly attributed to his father Peeter van Bredael.

His still lifes distinguish his work from that of his nephew Jan Peeter the Younger who painted hunting scenes and battles. A flower still life signed with his full first names is in the collection of the Museo de Artes Decorativas Palacio Taranco in Montevideo. Two flower and fruit still lifes are in the Kunsthalle Hamburg and a hunting still life in the Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon.

Jan Peeter van Bredael the Elder – Still Life of Flowers in a Park With a Woman – 

Jan Peeter van Bredael the Elder or Jan Pieter van Bredael the Elder (Antwerp, 23 April 1654 – Antwerp, 10 March 1745) was a Flemish painter, art restorer and art dealer. He is known for his still lifes of flowers and fruits, game and Italianate landscapes. He was a member of the prominent artistic family van Bredael from Antwerp.

Jan Peeter van Bredael the Elder was born into an artist family in Antwerp as a son of the landscape painter Peeter van Bredael and Anna Maria Veldener. His father was known for his in market scenes and village feasts set in Italianate landscapes. His mother was the daughter of the sculptor Jennyn Veldener. His brothers Joris and Alexander also became painters.

His father was his first teacher. He left for Italy before 1680. Upon his return to Antwerp in 1680 he became a member of the Antwerp Guild of St Luke. He married on 11 January 1680 Joanna Pinseel. His first wife died in February 1687. He remarried the same year. He had seven daughters and four sons with his second wife Joanna Catharina Huybrechts. He travelled to London between 1685 and 1689. Here he was active as a painter, art dealer and art restorer.

Jan Gillis Ferdinandus van Raveschot was his pupil from 1694. He was successful and provided funds to the Guild of St Luke of Antwerp of which he became a dean In 1689. He was also active as an art restorer in Antwerp. In 1698 the Antwerp magistrate paid him for the restoration of some paintings. Between 1680 and 1729 he was a captain in the local civilian militia. He was financially successful and was able to purchase a house on the fashionable Meir in Antwerp. He moved to a hostel after his wife died in 1716.

He was recorded as an artist, art dealer and restorer in Paris in 1719.

He died on 10 March 1745 in Antwerp.

Jan Peeter van Bredael (I) – River landscape with travellers – 

Jan Peeter van Bredael the Elder or Jan Pieter van Bredael the Elder (Antwerp, 23 April 1654 – Antwerp, 10 March 1745) was a Flemish painter, art restorer and art dealer. He is known for his still lifes of flowers and fruits, game and Italianate landscapes. He was a member of the prominent artistic family van Bredael from Antwerp.

Jan Peeter van Bredael (I) – Mediterranean port scene with figures – 

Jan Peeter van Bredael the Elder or Jan Pieter van Bredael the Elder[1] (Antwerp, 23 April 1654 – Antwerp, 10 March 1745) was a Flemish painter, art restorer and art dealer. He is known for his still lifes of flowers and fruits, game and Italianate landscapes. He was a member of the prominent artistic family van Bredael from Antwerp.

Alexander van Bredael – Merrymaking on the ice – 

Alexander van Bredael (1 April 1663 – 14 July 1720) was a Flemish painter known for Italianate landscapes and genre scenes of fairs, cattle markets and villages. He was a prominent member of the Antwerp artistic family van Bredael.

Alexander van Bredael painted in a wide variety of genres including cattle market scenes, Italianate landscapes and village scenes. He is probably best known for his depiction of festivals and processions set in his native Antwerp. His village scenes are reminiscent of the genre scenes of David Teniers the Younger. He also took his inspiration from other Flemish artists. For instance, his composition A Festival in Antwerp likely drew its inspiration from similar paintings representing processions in cities by Flemish artists such as Pieter van Aelst and Erasmus de Bie.

He painted many scenes of cattle markets, which offered him the opportunity to showcase his skill in depicting group scenes populated with many figures as well as his ability to paint animals. He made various Italianate landscapes often including harbour scenes such as the Harbour Scene with View of a Town.

Alexander van Bredael produced designs for the tapestry workshops in Oudenaarde. In 1698 he is recorded as supplying designs for six tapestries with genre scenes depicting peasants and gypsies. He provided designs for tapestries that are referred to as Teniers scenes or tapestries. This refers to tapestries related to the Flemish genre painters David Teniers the Younger and David Teniers III. Even though it is not possible to connect the tapestries known as Teniers tapestries, which were woven in numerous weaving centers in Flanders, to any specific designs of these genre painters, these tapestries have been called Teniers tapestries since the early 18th century. Correspondences between the merchant Pieter van Verrren and Alexander van Bredael of 1700 make clear Alexander van Bredael designed some Teniers tapestries. A tapestry depicting an eyeglass vendor was sold by Christie’s on 5 February 2003 in New York. It is possible that the landscape in this tapestry was drawn by Pieter Spierinckx, particularly since such a collaboration between Bredael and Spierinckx on Teniers tapestries is mentioned in documents of 1707.

Alexander van Bredael – Large pastoral festival among ancient ruins – 

Alexander van Bredael (1 April 1663 – 14 July 1720) was a Flemish painter known for Italianate landscapes and genre scenes of fairs, cattle markets and villages. He was a prominent member of the Antwerp artistic family van Bredael.

Alexander van Bredael – Harbour Scene with View of a Town – 

Alexander van Bredael (1 April 1663 – 14 July 1720) was a Flemish painter known for Italianate landscapes and genre scenes of fairs, cattle markets and villages. He was a prominent member of the Antwerp artistic family van Bredael.